Deciding when to retire can be a difficult decision to make. Will I have enough income from my retirement accounts, pension, and social security to live comfortably in retirement? A common misunderstanding of individuals contemplating when to retire is that you can not access your retirement accounts or any personal pension schemes until you are at least age 59 1/2. You may be surprised to learn that there are ways to withdraw funds from your retirement accounts before age 59 1/2 and avoid paying the 10% early withdrawal penalty.
Ways to Retire Early and Avoid Early Withdrawal Penalty
Substantially Equal Periodic Payments – By taking distributions from your IRA that are substantially equal payments over your expected lifespan or the combined lifespans of you and a designated beneficiary you can avoid the 10% early withdrawal fee. Use an IRS-approved distribution method and take the exact same distribution each year. You don't have to take distributions based upon the entire balance in your IRA so “splitting” the account and taking distributions from only one of them is an option.
Leaving a Job After Age 55 – If you are at least 55 when you leave your job, you will not have to pay the 10% early withdrawal fee on any distribution you receive from your former employer's retirement plan. You only need to turn 55 by December 31st of the same year you separated from your employer to qualify for the age 55 exception. You also can go back to work for another company or even go back to work for the same company at a later date. This exception does not apply to IRAs.
Other Ways to Access Retirement Income Penalty Free
Withdrawing money from a retirement account is never a good idea since you will lose out on potential asset appreciation and the benefits of compounding returns. There are however life events that may make accessing your retirement accounts necessary, these are some of the ways you can access your retirement accounts and avoid the early withdrawal penalty.
Higher Education Costs – Withdrawals for qualified education costs for yourself, your spouse, or the children or grandchildren of you or your spouse are not subject to the 10% penalty. Qualified education expenses include: tuition, books, supplies, fees, equipment, and room and board for a student who is attending college at least half-time. Keep in mind that IRA withdrawals are considered income and will effect your child's eligibility for financial aid.
A First Home – You may take a distribution from your IRA penalty-free for the purchase of your first home but there are some restrictions:
- The exemption has a lifetime limitation of $10,000
- Distributed funds must be used to purchase a principle residence for a first-time homeowner. A married home buyer or their spouse my not have had an ownership interest in any principle residence in the last two years.
- Distributed funds must be used to purchase a principle residence within the first 120 days after receiving distribution.
- The first-time homeowner must be the owner of the IRA, the owner's spouse, or a child, an ancestor, or a grandchild of the owner or the owner's spouse.
Military Service – Military Reservists who were called to active-duty after September 11, 2001, for a period of more than 179 days, may take early distribution from an IRA penalty free. The distribution must be made during the active duty period and is available to Military Reservists in the following branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard Reserves.
An Inherited IRA – If you are the beneficiary of the IRA of a deceased owner, then you may take the entire distribution penalty free.
Dividends From an ESOP – An ESOP, or employee stock ownership plan, allows for cash distributions as long as the employee has a right to demand that benefits be paid in employer stock. Dividends from stock held in an employee's ESOP are not subject to the early distribution penalty regardless of age.
Medical Expenses – Withdrawals from your retirement plan for medical expenses for yourself, spouse, or dependent are exempt from the early withdrawal penalty only for the portion of medical expenses that exceed 7.5% of your gross income. You can take advantage of this exclusion even if you do not itemize.
Health Insurance Premiums – If you lose your job and collect unemployment for at least 12 consecutive weeks, you can use distributions from an IRA to pay for health insurance premiums for yourself, a spouse, or dependents, penalty free. To be eligible for the exemption, the distribution must have occurred in the year or year after you received the unemployment compensation and no later than 60 days after you have gone back to work.
QDRO Payments – Payments for child support or alimony from a retirement plan are not subject to the early withdrawal penalty if they are required under a QDRO, Qualified Domestic Relations Order. This exception does not apply to IRAs.
Deciding when to retire takes planning and a great resource to start with is the AARP Retirement Planner.
Under what circumstances would you withdraw funds from a retirement account? What about in the case of early retirement?